2 Samuel 10

A Despised King

Discussion Question

Is there anyone in the world that does not deserve the kindness of God?

Background (Context)

2 Samuel Chapter 10 contains a few place names that we need some background information on. A good bible dictionary can really speed up research like this but remember that 99% of what we need to know about places in the Old Testament come from the Old Testament itself. Therefore, a good bible search tool or cross-reference bible are both very helpful.

The Ammonites are descendants of Lot, Abraham’s nephew. The Israelites were commanded not to harm or take the land from the Ammonites in Deuteronomy 2:19 because God had made a separate promise to Lot. But the Ammonites were also forbidden to join in the Israelite blessing (Deuteronomy 23:3-6) because they had hired Balaam to prophesy against Israel. Nahesh, king of the Ammonites besieged Jabesh-Gilead (an Israelite town) at the time when Saul became king. Saul rescued Jabesh-Gilead. We are told in 2 Samuel 10:2 that David had a good relationship with King Nahesh.

In Chapter 8, we read of David defeating Hadadezar, king of Zobah. David took a lot of gold and bronze from Hadadezar. People from Damascus tried to help Hadadezar but failed. It appears that the people of Zobah and of Damascus and of Rehob are also part of a common group known as the Arameans – the Arameans of Damascus, of Zobah and of Rehob for example. Hadadezar oppressed the people of Hamath who then thanked David for defeating Hadadezar.

Joab was a commander in David’s army (2 Samuel 8:16).

The theme of Chapter 9 was about the kindness of God shown through David to Mephibosheth. The events of Chapter 10 continue the theme of God’s kindness but this time as it is directed to the nations around Israel.

Read 2 Samuel 10

10 In the course of time, the king of the Ammonites died, and his son Hanun succeeded him as king. David thought, “I will show kindness to Hanun son of Nahash, just as his father showed kindness to me.” So David sent a delegation to express his sympathy to Hanun concerning his father.

When David’s men came to the land of the Ammonites, the Ammonite commanders said to Hanun their lord, “Do you think David is honoring your father by sending envoys to you to express sympathy? Hasn’t David sent them to you only to explore the city and spy it out and overthrow it?” So Hanun seized David’s envoys, shaved off half of each man’s beard, cut off their garments at the buttocks, and sent them away.

When David was told about this, he sent messengers to meet the men, for they were greatly humiliated. The king said, “Stay at Jericho till your beards have grown, and then come back.”

When the Ammonites realized that they had become obnoxious to David, they hired twenty thousand Aramean foot soldiers from Beth Rehob and Zobah, as well as the king of Maakah with a thousand men, and also twelve thousand men from Tob.

On hearing this, David sent Joab out with the entire army of fighting men. The Ammonites came out and drew up in battle formation at the entrance of their city gate, while the Arameans of Zobah and Rehob and the men of Tob and Maakah were by themselves in the open country.

Joab saw that there were battle lines in front of him and behind him; so he selected some of the best troops in Israel and deployed them against the Arameans. 10 He put the rest of the men under the command of Abishai his brother and deployed them against the Ammonites. 11 Joab said, “If the Arameans are too strong for me, then you are to come to my rescue; but if the Ammonites are too strong for you, then I will come to rescue you. 12 Be strong, and let us fight bravely for our people and the cities of our God. The Lord will do what is good in his sight.”

13 Then Joab and the troops with him advanced to fight the Arameans, and they fled before him. 14 When the Ammonites realized that the Arameans were fleeing, they fled before Abishai and went inside the city. So Joab returned from fighting the Ammonites and came to Jerusalem.

15 After the Arameans saw that they had been routed by Israel, they regrouped. 16 Hadadezer had Arameans brought from beyond the Euphrates River; they went to Helam, with Shobak the commander of Hadadezer’s army leading them.

17 When David was told of this, he gathered all Israel, crossed the Jordan and went to Helam. The Arameans formed their battle lines to meet David and fought against him. 18 But they fled before Israel, and David killed seven hundred of their charioteers and forty thousand of their foot soldiers. He also struck down Shobak the commander of their army, and he died there. 19 When all the kings who were vassals of Hadadezer saw that they had been routed by Israel, they made peace with the Israelites and became subject to them.

So the Arameans were afraid to help the Ammonites anymore.

What did you see? (Observation)

For the sake of clarity, here is a quick summary of Chapter 10! David wanted to extend his friendship to the next king of the Ammonites but instead of friendship, king Hanun humiliated David’s men. The Ammonites then hired 20,000 Aramean foot soldiers and others. David sent Joab and his whole army to fight the Ammonites. The Ammonites stood outside their city to wait for Joab while the hired men went behind Joab. Joab took half of his men to turn and fight the Arameans while Abishai, his brother, took the other half to confront the Ammonites. The Arameans got scared and fled. The Ammonites got scared and retreated into their city. Joab returned to Jerusalem but the Arameans regrouped and descended, along with more men from the Euphrates to a town called Helam. David himself came out with his men to fight at Helam and he defeated them. Everyone who was once subject to Hadadezar now became willing subjects to David.

Structure

  • The King’s kindness extended (1-2)
  • The kindness rejected (3-5)
  • The conflict that followed (6-16)
  • The king who ended the conflict and those who thanked him (17-19)

The King’s kindness extended (1-2)

“In the course of time, the king of the Ammonites died…” As mentioned in the Context section, we may read this chapter as what happened when the Ammonite king died, rather than ‘what happened next’ chronologically. This chapter is a story about what happened when this king died. A time that is fragile for kingdoms – an opportune moment for other nations to take advantage of their transition.

“David thought, “I will show kindness…”” The theme of this chapter is also kindness just as Chapter 9. This kindness is stretched out beyond the borders of Israel. The Ammonites were East of the Jordan River. The Kingdom of David, which foreshadows the Kingdom of God, is to be an international blessing. Abraham was told that his descendants would be a blessing to all the nations.

“…just as his father showed kindness to me.” This is surprising since they had not shown kindness toward Saul but we take David at his word. At the least, there was no hostility between David and Nahash. Their relationship may have gone further but we do not know.

“So David sent a delegation to express his sympathy…” David sent messengers with his condolences. Although David did not go in person, he sent people with authority to announce his words. We may ponder how God has sent prophets and apostles into the world to announce His intentions for peace.

“When David’s men came to the land of the Ammonites…” Now the problem of the story is ready. David’s men have travelled across the Jordan into foreign territory to represent the king of Israel. What reception will they get?

The kindness rejected (3-5)

“…the Ammonite commanders said to…their lord, “Do you think…” In contrast to David being in command of his men and sending them based on his thinking, the commanders in Hanun’s court speak to their lord and try to influence his thinking. I’m not sure how big a deal this difference makes except to contrast David’s command with Hanun’s.

“So Hanun seized David’s envoys, shaved off half of each man’s beard, cut off their garments at the buttocks, and sent them away.” If I could put an emoji here it would be the one with no mouth and wide round eyes! David’s men may not have even had the opportunity to speak what they had been sent to say. King Hanun despised the kindness of King David. The half shaven beard and the trouserless men were sent away humiliated. The darker side of Nahash (1 Samuel 11:2) is seen in his son, Hanun.

“David…sent messengers to meet the men…”Stay in Jericho till your beards have grown…” David’s kindness is seen again. He was alert to the news of what had gone down and didn’t wait for the men to return to Jerusalem. He knew that they would be ashamed to come to Jerusalem as they were. Even if they had acquired clothing on their journey back, they still had their shaved beards to bare (see Leviticus 19:27; Jeremiah 48:37 and Ezekiel 5:1 for examples of how the beard was a sign of dignity).

The conflict that followed (6-16)

“When the Ammonites realised that they had become obnoxious to David…” Another clue here is given to show David’s care for his messengers. The way that his messengers were treated were directly felt by King David. They were truly his flesh and blood – part of the body of Israel with David as the head. We don’t hear what David thought of the Ammonites but they devised that they had become a stench to David. A strong rejection was felt from the point of view of the Ammonites. But what will they do in response to this awareness?

“…they hired twenty thousand Aramean foot soldiers…” They could have opted for an apology – to repent – but they chose to go all in and gather supporters. Enter the Arameans of Beth Rehob and Zobah (where Hadadezer is from) plus some from Maakah and Tob. See Romans 2:4 to remember the kindness of God toward sinners.

“On hearing this, David sent Joab out with the entire army of fighting men.” O-Oh…they’re in trouble! David has remained at Jerusalem but his whole fighting army has gone out with the commanding officer. We ought to picture a righteous response to the aggression initiated by the enemy of Israel. We ought also wonder what the result will be since David is not with them and there has not been that particular habit of enquiring of the LORD.

“The Ammonites came out…at the entrance of their city gate, while the Arameans…were…in the open country.” Picture the city of the Ammonites guarded by soldiers in front and the Israelite army approaching but a third army forming behind the Israelites. The people of God have been sent by God’s king into the world and the nations are hostile all around them.

“Joab saw that there were battle lines in front of him and behind him…” The surprise attack was revealed. Joab saw what was literally happening on the battlefield – in contrast to how the Ammonites saw that they had become obnoxious to David (Verse 6). The Ammonites were reacting to an inner fear while Joab was seeing real hostility forming around him.

“…best troops in Israel…against the Arameans.” The greater threat to Israel appeared to be the Arameans rather than the silly Ammonites who cut beards and dack their enemy.

“Joab said…” The speech from Joab is unexpectedly long in this passage. A good rule in reading the bible is to take note of what people say in the narratives. They reveal their intentions (derr) but the narrator (Holy Spirit driving the writer) uses speech to disclose important details.

“Be strong, and let us fight bravely for our people and the cities of our God.” When brothers and sisters in the kingdom of God are in battle, spiritually and through interacting with the world we live in, how good is it to hear something like: take courage, be strong, think of what we are doing here. Let us support and rescue one another and be mindful that we are doing battle with the enemy of God. We need to unpack how this translates to Christians fighting which we will look at in the application.

“The LORD will do what is good in his sight.” After the plans of Joab have been laid out, we hear of his faith or at least his understanding of God’s sovereignty. The fighters in David’s kingdom know that they are part of the plans of God. They make the plans but God will direct the outcome. He may not know what God would do but he does know that whatever God does will be good.

Let me quote John Woodhouse on this speech from Joab…

“Joab’s words to Abishai stand at the heart of this chapter. He makes the only direct reference to God in the whole chapter, and what he said illuminates the whole episode. The words are a wonderful expression of faith in God. Faith is knowing that the Lord is good and that he does what is good. What is good is decided by God, not us.42 But with this faith we can face any enemy, any situation, any threat with a strength that comes from this faith. As we walk honestly before God, doing what he approves, he will give us strength that surpasses whatever power confronts us (cf. Romans 8:31–39).”

“…Joab returned from fighting the Ammonites and came to Jerusalem.” Both hostile armies fled. There was no need for Joab to support Abishai nor Abishai to support Joab. There were no recorded deaths in this battle. The enemy fled in both directions. The first outcome seems like a win for God’s people. Joab was able to return all the way to Jerusalem.

“After the Arameans saw…they regrouped.” The enemy gets their second wind. One battle had been won but the enemy takes every opportunity to attack. Even a quick beating will not resolve this situation. The enemy is relentless.

“Hadadezer…” He is mentioned in Verse 16 for the first time in this chapter but is named twice more. We met him in Chapter 8 when we heard of his defeat and David acquiring much gold and bronze from him. He is the king of Zobah and has therefore been part of this conflict since Verse 6. Hadadezer means “Hadad is [my] help”. Hadad was a pagan storm-god known as “the one who smashes.”

“…brought from beyond the Euphrates River; they went to Helam…” The enemy regrouped but came back even stronger and came to Helam. The location of Helam is not certain but way closer to home. Perhaps some 60km east of the Sea of Galilee.

While the Ammonites had retreated to their city, their hired help were now determined to show their strength against Israel. So far it has been a battle led by commanders, Joab and now Shobak. The enemy are poised to engage with more force than the first time.

The king who ended the conflict and those who thanked him (17-19)

“When David was told this…” The next stage of the story begins here – the resolution. David is now brought back into the story and we watch to see what he does.

“…he gathered Israel, crossed the Jordan and went to Helam.” He doesn’t send this time but he gathers and goes. The king is going to war.

“The Arameans formed their battle lines to meet David and fought against him.” Both sides are engaged to fight with all the force they can gather. It’s multiple tribes of the Arameans against David.

“But they fled before Israel…” It’s all over folks. Nothing to see here. David wins. This time, however, there is more than just the enemy fleeing…

“…David killed seven hundred of their charioteers and forty thousans of their foot soldiers. He also struck down Shoback the commander of their army, and he died there.” David not only won but he disabled any future attacks from this evil people. There were a few points in this chapter which would have allowed the enemy to live. They first of all should not have sided with the city that shunned David’s kindness. They should have also kept away after the first battle. These were a people bent on attacking God’s people.

“When all the kings who were vassals of Hadadezer saw…they made peace with the Israelites and became subject to them.” We learn here that Hadadezer, king of Zobah, was lord over other kingdoms too. These other kings were subject of him with a kind of feudal allegiance. He would not harm them if they saluted him. Likely they paid tribute or taxes and perhaps they would receive some protection from him. The details of the arrangement can differ but he was their dominant rival. They get to keep their land but as subjects of Hadadezer. But they see that David has defeated them. They make peace with David – accepting the kindness that was initially offered to the Ammonites. They reject the power of king Hadadezer and come to David now as their King.

“So the Arameans were afraid to help the Ammonites anymore.” The Arameans were defeated but the story leaves us to contemplate the future of the Ammonites. They were the ones that were offered David’s kindness. They rejected it. They did not relent but looked for help from others. Now, they do not have the kindness of King David nor the help from anybody else. They are left on their own. Alone in the world and without the friendship of God’s King.

What did we learn? (Meaning)

The kindness of God’s king is offered to the nations of the world. If only they would learn to trust in the offer that God makes instead of choosing to hate His friendship. Those who oppose the goodness of God will face the judgement of God. There are those in command who stand up against God’s kingdom but there is One True King who will receive all who come to Him and call Him Lord.

Now what? (Application)

Topic A: The gospel for all nations. The story opens and closes with the message of kindness to nations outside of Israel. David opens his hand to a foreign king and it is rejected. But the conclusion of the story is of other nations coming to David – recognising that he is the king to be at peace with. The gospel is very much like this. Romans 10:9 tells us that salvation is about declaring Jesus as Lord. How can people do that if they do not know because they have not heard. Did you notice along the story how everybody acted on what they saw (V6, 9, 15, 19)  and on what they heard (V5, 7, 17). The gospel is not a secret to be kept but a message of what God has done, what He is like, and how He wants to make peace with all who will not stand up against Him.

Topic B: The encouragement of a Christian brother or sister. As noted, Joab’s speech is a significant one. It is a conversation between two brothers fighting for the same king and trusting in the same God. The battle ahead would be daunting especially when they felt trapped by two armies. But their trust was in the LORD to do what the LORD sees as good. They were of one mind with regard to their mission. Their faith was in God who they trust will do good. The word of encouragement is not simply to toughen up but to see the bigger picture and know that Yahweh is God. And to go even one step further, they are to be ready to rescue one another. It is important for us all to have friends. Not just work colleagues or fellow church goers but friends. It is so great when we have a friend who will talk to us about God and give us courage to keep trusting in the LORD.

Topic C: The trouble with kindness is that it is too subtle for fools. The kingdom of God has two faces – the face you see depends on your response to the kingdom. On the one hand there is kindness. God created a good world, damaged by the sin of humanity, but kept mercifully going by God, his wrath held back so that many can be saved. This is the loving kindness of God to the world that says, “God gave His one and only Son, so that whoever believes in Him will…have eternal life.” What a wonderfully generous offer that we all ought to accept straight away! But the other face of the kingdom is punishment on fools who say that there is no God, or that God does not deserve to be recognised. John 3:16 implies that if we continue in our unbelief then we will perish.  John 3:36 puts it like this: “Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on them.” All of humanity are experiencing the kindness of God while He refrains from pouring His wrath on those who have not yet turned to the King. Our race mistakes God’s kindness as idleness when really it means salvation. As Romans 2:4 says, “do you show contempt for the riches of his kindness, forbearance and patience, not realising that God’s kindness is intended to lead you to repentance?

2 Samuel 7:1-17

A Promised Kingdom

Discussion Question

When you read the bible, what do you expect to get from it?

Background (Context)

2 Samuel Chapter 7 is a profoundly important chapter in the context of the whole bible. God, the creator of all things, chose the descendants of Abraham to experience his special grace. Abraham’s grandson, Jacob, was renamed to Israel and his twelve children became the heads of the nation of Israel. Under Moses, Israel was rescued from slavery in Egypt and under Joshua they were lead into the promised land. They were expected to live there as the people of God in obedience to God’s word as written down by Moses. The book of Judges shows us that this was not going to happen without good leadership. 1 Samuel told the story of the introduction of a king to lead Israel. This king was to lead the nation under the law of God. David is the king that God chose to shepherd the people of Israel.

We’ve read of David being received by the people of Israel in 2 Samuel chapters 1 to 5. He conquered the major city of Jerusalem and took it to be the City of David. He brought the ark of God back, which had been taken by the Philistines, to a Tabernacle organised by David. We have arrived at a moment in the bible story where God’s people are in God’s land under God’s blessing and rule. Although there have been some subtle clues regarding David’s sin, the book has presented David very highly in the eyes of God and of the people. The nation is finally united under a king who is shepherding them in humility, gentleness and peace. This has either got to be the end of the bible story, or there is a twist about to take place.

Read 2 Samuel 7:1-17

After the king was settled in his palace and the Lord had given him rest from all his enemies around him, 2 he said to Nathan the prophet, “Here I am, living in a house of cedar, while the ark of God remains in a tent.”

3 Nathan replied to the king, “Whatever you have in mind, go ahead and do it, for the Lord is with you.”

4 But that night the word of the Lord came to Nathan, saying:

5 “Go and tell my servant David, ‘This is what the Lord says: Are you the one to build me a house to dwell in? 6 I have not dwelt in a house from the day I brought the Israelites up out of Egypt to this day. I have been moving from place to place with a tent as my dwelling. 7 Wherever I have moved with all the Israelites, did I ever say to any of their rulers whom I commanded to shepherd my people Israel, “Why have you not built me a house of cedar?” ’

8 “Now then, tell my servant David, ‘This is what the Lord Almighty says: I took you from the pasture, from tending the flock, and appointed you ruler over my people Israel. 9 I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have cut off all your enemies from before you. Now I will make your name great, like the names of the greatest men on earth. 10 And I will provide a place for my people Israel and will plant them so that they can have a home of their own and no longer be disturbed. Wicked people will not oppress them anymore, as they did at the beginning 11 and have done ever since the time I appointed leaders h over my people Israel. I will also give you rest from all your enemies.

“ ‘The Lord declares to you that the Lord himself will establish a house for you: 12 When your days are over and you rest with your ancestors, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, your own flesh and blood, and I will establish his kingdom. 13 He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. 14 I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men, with floggings inflicted by human hands. 15 But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. 16 Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.’ ”

17 Nathan reported to David all the words of this entire revelation.

What did you see? (Observation)

Structure

  • It seems right to build God better quarters (1-3)
  • The LORD rejects this reasoning (4-16)
    • I have never asked for a house of cedar (4-7)
    • I will provide a name for you (8-9)
    • I will provide a place and rest for you (10-11)
    • I will establish a house for you forever (12-16)
  • Nathan reports all to David (17)

It seems right to build God better quarters (1-3)

“After the king was settled in his palace and the LORD had given him rest from all his enemies around him…” We cannot understate the context of this statement. A great deal has lead up to this moment and we read here of the description of blessing from God. If Israel will be humble and walk in obedience before the LORD then this can be their ongoing experience.

“He said to Nathan the prophet…” The bible mentions Nathan a few times in passing but there is no great backstory to tell here. He was a well known prophet of David’s day and clearly part of David’s personal council. It is a grand sign that David had a man of God in his presence to assist in shepherding Israel. Nathan is the same prophet who rebukes David after the sin with Bathsheba (2 Sam 12).

“Here I am, living in a house of cedar, while the ark of God remains in a tent.” You can imagine David standing on a balcony with Nathan the prophet, overlooking the city, breathing in the satisfaction of peace and order, and looking down to see that the ark of God is housed in a tent. It is likely to have been a beautiful tent as described in the book of Exodus – designed by God Himself. There was no disrespect intended by David by housing the ark in what was the Tabernacle. But David sees the problem of being so well housed himself (2 Samuel 5:11). It is a great gesture of love and respect to God.

“Nathan replied to the king, “…go ahead and do it…” It seems like a no-brainer. What a great idea. We have a prophet here giving David the OK so we may feel like this is good. And yet, we might remember that David had the plan to go and get the ark of God and bring it back but it didn’t go as well as he’d planned initially. He needed to learn humility. Nonetheless, Nathan says, do it! It seems like an obvious decision.

The LORD rejects this reasoning (4-16)

The response from God is plain: you don’t build me a house – I am the house builder and I will build you a house. There is a little play on words as both house and dynasty are related words. While David is talking about building with cedar, Yahweh is talking about establishing a kingdom for David that will never end. He stripped the kingdom from out of Saul but he will not do that for David. This word from the LORD to Nathaniel is often referred to as the Davidic Covenant.

I have never asked for a house of cedar (4-7)

“…the word of the LORD came to Nathan, saying…” Hebrews 1:1 says that in the past God has spoken to our ancestors through the prophets in various ways. Our God is a God who speaks. This is a tremendous relief to us all! Without His words to this world we would be in the dark. Hebrews 1:2 says that it gets better because He has spoken to us now through His own Son. While God can still communicate in any way He chooses today, it is the norm for God to speak to the world today, via the people of God through the written word of God. This is not the space for a full exposition on ‘the Word of God’ but the beginning and end of this story speaks of the revelation from God to Nathan. God’s full revelation is found in the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. No new word from God is needed.

“…my servant David…” Used here in Verse 5 and in Verse 8. The theme of God’s message is that He is the one building and establishing and David’s kingdom is a product of the sovereignty of God.

“Are you the one to build me a house to dwell in?” God will have an upgrade from the Tabernacle to the Temple but not by David. It will be Solomon who builds the Temple. But the answer is not simply a “not yet” answer. He continues to make the point that He is not subject and dependant on David but the other way around. The familiar theme of Living God versus dumb idol appears again here. He is not a dumb idol that man needs to build and carry around, but he is the creator and redeemer.

“…I brought the Israelites up out of Egypt…I have moved with all the Israelites…I commanded [rulers] to shepherd my people…” Verses 5-7 highlight that Israel is only a people because God established them. He redeemed them, he dwelt with them, he established leaders over his people. The story of Israel out of Egypt is the gospel of the Old Testament. Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers give the context of this statement.

“…did I ever say…”Why have you not built me a house of cedar?”” God designed and prescribed to Israel what the Tabernacle ought to look like. He instructed Moses on how to make it and the people under Moses’ instruction built the tent-like Tabernacle. The people did exactly as God had described it and God blessed the people by ‘dwelling’ in that tent. David’s good desire to honour God with a cedar Temple is stopped by God because God has not ever asked for this. This taps into a major theme in the bible that we need to pay attention to: we do not design the way in which we worship and honour God but He describes how we are to approach and worship Him.

I will provide a name for you (8-9)

“I took you from the pasture, from tending the flock, and appointed you ruler over my people Israel.” This parallels what God said in Verse 6. Just as God brought Israel up out of Egypt, he brought David up from his small role as a shepherd of sheep and made him the king of Israel. God established Israel. God established David as the king of Israel. They are not David’s people but God’s people. While David has not sinned by suggesting that he build God a better house, God wants David to keep in clear mind who is the LORD Almighty and who is a shepherd boy made king.

“I have been with you…and I have cut off all your enemies…” David has been a legendary fighter but he has always maintained that it is Yahweh who continually delivered him from the enemy (2 Samuel 4:9; 5:19). This story began with the summary of peace over David’s kingdom from all his enemies and it will become a further promise in Verse 11.

“Now I will make your name great, like the names of the greatest men on earth.” The promises from God to David very much reflect the promise from God to Abram (Abraham). Firstly, that his name would be great. King David’s name is certainly great in the bible. His kingdom was legendary and the benchmark of all kings to follow.  

I will provide a place and rest for you (10-11)

“And I will provide a place for my people Israel…” The second promise also echoes the promises made to Abraham. The Promised Land is not only a present reality for David but continues to be part of the promise for the future of Israel. What we see in this Davidic Covenant is not a new covenant but the old one repeated and David’s ancestors being the ones through whom this promise is fulfilled – forever.

“Wicked people will not oppress them anymore, as they did…” Israel, of course, has been in the Promised Land since the days of Joshua. In fact, there was a declaration in Joshua 21:45 that all of God’s promises had been fulfilled. But the enemy kept invading and tempting Israel to turn their back on Yahweh. Unlike previous leaders of Israel (the judges), David’s dynasty will see peace. Now, we begin to wonder how this will be fulfilled. Any reader of the bible knows that this does not happen. David’s son Solomon enjoys peace in his time but then the next generation and all who follow experience hostility. God’s promise to David is to be expected to occur firstly under David but then ultimately under Jesus who is the only king who can fulfill this promise. The word of Yahweh to Nathan continues to blend between an earthly fulfillment and an eternal one through Christ.

“…rest from your enemies.” Peace in Israel is a sign of God’s blessing upon them.

I will establish a house for you forever (11b-16)


“…the LORD himself will establish a house for you…” As already stated, David’s initiative to build a house for God is met with this reply: you are not the house builder for God, God is the house builder for David. The word house has a double meaning: wood or bricks as well as family or dynasty.

“When your days are over and you rest with your ancestors…” Death is still a problem that the bible hasn’t resolved yet. Even the promised king of God’s people will face it. Rest is promised however. We don’t get a full theology of the resurrection until after the ‘third day’ in the gospels. The idea of life after death was not printed in clear ink but Jesus was able to rebuke the Sadducees for their disbelief in the resurrection by using the Old Testament.

“…I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, your own flesh and blood, and I will establish his kingdom.” David need not worry about the future of his kingdom since God will continue to carry it and strengthen it. God’s promise turns immediately to David’s very next generation. It will be his son who builds the house.

“He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.” God moves from the promise of making David’s name great to promising that David’s son will make a house for God’s name. His character and love and devotion will be on the Temple that Solomon builds (1 Kings 9). But the promise is obscure as we know that his throne does not last forever. The offspring of David does continue and his throne is recorded for generations but it isn’t until we see Jesus establish His eternal kingdom that we understand the twist to this story and the greatest promises of God fulfilled completely and without end in the Messiah. Jesus is the fulfilled King who is the suffering servant and king of the Jews. This ambiguity between Solomon and Jesus continues in Verse 14.

“I will be his father, and he will be my son.” God has not referred to David as His son. Solomon will be more than David’s son but will be treated by God as his own son. This is an extraordinary promise. When has such a promise been declared before! And yet we carry this very invitation through Christ. Only because of the blessings that God gives to us and not on any presumptuous attitude we might imagine. That is, we cannot presume that God is for us and yet he comes to us to call us his children. And this because he first provided us with the Son whom He loves.

“When he does wrong, I will punish him with a rod wielded by men…” The throne of David will go on but not without consequences. Future kings will be disciplined with the rod of other nations. Even the Messiah will receive the rod although that will not be for wrongs He has done but wrongs of others that He takes on himself.

“But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul…” Here is the key to understanding this promise at the basic level. While God regretted crowning Saul and removed the kingdom from him, God is vowing to keep it in the house of David forever.

“Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever.” The promise again is for a dynasty that will never have God’s face turned away. So where is this promise now? It is established firmly in the life of Jesus Christ. He is the ‘forever king!’ He is the fulfillment of every promise that God has made.

Nathan reports all to David (17)

“…all the words of this entire revelation.” We’re reminded that this is God’s speech to a man of God and his responsibility is to speak every word just as it has been given. The Word of God has come to us in the Lord Jesus Christ. He commanded his disciples to go and tell the world everything that they have heard and seen and make disciples of all nations. We speak because God first spoke to us. We speak only what we have been given.

 

What did we learn? (Meaning)

God’s promises to Abraham (of a great name, a place and blessing) is reaffirmed under the kingdom of David. But God reminds David that the kingdom will forever be built by God and not by man. David will not build a house for God but God will build a house for David. Just as Israel is redeemed and blessed because of God’s grace to them, so too David’s house. The eternal kingdom of God is found in the Lord Jesus Christ who is God’s Son, who came to dwell with men, to place His name in our hearts and to bring us peace and rest. Jesus is the forever king.

Now what? (Application)

Topic A: The difference between good intentions and God’s plans. David had a great plan to honour God in this time of peace and rest. It seemed good to him and it seemed like a good idea to Nathan the prophet. But God’s revelation focused on how He is the kingdom builder. Sometimes churches get mistaken for charity providers. The idea is that churches are only good in society in as much as they support those in need. While charity work is wonderful, it is not the primary purpose of the church. Making disciples by retelling the gospel is the first point of a church. In making plans for your own life, how can you distinguish between a good thing and a God thing? What plans does God see for your life? Is it a life of riches without suffering?

Topic B: Jesus is the King who brings peace. Many people read the bible looking for the golden rules for life, or assurance that what we are doing is fine or at least on the right track but miss the big picture of the bible. The message is that it is all done in Christ. The forever king has been established and it’s not you or me – it’s Jesus. The bible does not give us clues to work out how to do life better but to find Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith. So, it’s not we who build a kingdom for God but God who has already built the kingdom and welcomes us in.

Topic C: The entire revelation of God is in our hands. The prophet Nathan was given revelation from God specifically meant for David’s ears and which has made its way into the bible for our benefit. It makes up part of a whole story which we now have the beginning, middle and end. The revelation from God to this world is complete. The book is written and we have it in our hands. The joy of reading the bible is seeing how it all pieces together and draws us in to the end. The revelation of God to the world is that Jesus is King and one day every knee will bow and every tongue confess that He is LORD.